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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 193-198

Ciprofloxacin use in hospitalized children: Approved or off-label?

1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Toktam Faghihi
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_27

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Objective: Fluoroquinolones are not routinely used as the first-line antimicrobial therapy in pediatrics. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved fluoroquinolones on certain indications in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent and how ciprofloxacin is used on approved indication or as off-label. Besides, dose adequacy and treatment duration were assessed. Methods: In a 10-month observational study, all children receiving systemic ciprofloxacin were assessed. We classified ciprofloxacin prescription to an AAP/FDA or off-label indication. The off-label prescriptions were further categorized to justified and unjustified therapy subgroups. The AAP/FDA category and the justified subgroup constituted the appropriate prescriptions. Findings: During the study period, 32 patients were prescribed ciprofloxacin. In general, 37% (12) of prescriptions determined to be appropriate. Of the appropriate prescriptions, 7 were AAP/FDA-approved indications. Children with Crohn's disease with abdominal abscess and children with infectious bloody diarrhea constituted the off-label; justified therapy subgroup. Unjustified prescriptions mainly occurred in the presence of a suitable alternative antibiotic for ciprofloxacin. Mean ± SD of ciprofloxacin dose (mg/kg/day) and duration (days) were 21.25 ± 6.35 and 13.56 ± 8.48, respectively. Of the appropriate prescriptions, 41% were underdosed. Underdosing was more encountered in patients with cystic fibrosis. Duration of treatment of the appropriate prescriptions was determined to be appropriate. Conclusion: The majority of children were receiving ciprofloxacin off-label and in an inappropriate manner. This issue emphasizes that antimicrobial stewardship program on ciprofloxacin use in pediatric hospitals should be implemented. Further studies evaluating clinical and microbiological outcomes of these programs in children are needed.

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