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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 114-119

Impact of pharmacist intervention on appropriate insulin pen use in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural area in Iran


1 School of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Amiralmomenin Hospital, Khodabandeh, Iran
2 National Organization for Development of Exceptional Talents (NODET), Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Aida Sefidani Forough
School of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Amiralmomenin Hospital, Khodabandeh, Iran

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_16_151

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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-conducted educational intervention on reducing errors related to inappropriate insulin pen use.Methods: This was a prospective, before-after study with an educational intervention component. The study was conducted on 122 elderly diabetic patients. Data were collected through interviews using researcher-administered questionnaires as well as patients' medical records. Patients were asked about the preparation, injection, and storage techniques, they followed when using insulin pens. Blood glucose parameters were extracted from laboratory records. After the detection of errors, patients and their caregivers were instructed about the insulin pen use by the pharmacist. Patients were reevaluated after 12 weeks. Findings: Patients' mean age was 67.2 ± 3.5 with male: female ratio of 71:51. Mean diabetes duration was 7.1 ± 2.8 years. Fifty-four patients (44.2%) stated that they had received instructions for insulin pen use previously. The majority of this group (24 cases, 44.4%) reported that the instructions were given by a pharmacist. The mean number of errors decreased from 3.99 ± 0.22 errors per patient to 1.49 ± 0.13 errors (odds ratio: 0.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.23–0.33,P < 0.05). Of eleven evaluated insulin pen-related medication error items, nine items experienced a significant decrease after patient education. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels decreased significantly from 161.7 ± 12.5 to 147.3 ± 13.1 mg/dL (P < 0.05). However, glycated hemoglobin levels did not change significantly after 3 months (P = 0.18). Controlled FPG had a significant rise from 45% before education to 63.9% postintervention (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Pharmacists can play an important role in safe and efficient use of insulin pen in elderly diabetic patients by minimizing the likelihood of medication errors associated with insulin pen use.


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