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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 149-154

Antibiotic prescribing patterns at a leading referral hospital in Kenya: A point prevalence survey


1 Department of Pharmacy, Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital, Nakuru, Kenya
2 Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
3 Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
4 Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK; Department of Pharmacology, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
5 Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Public Health Pharmacy and Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Brian Godman
Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Public Health Pharmacy and Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_68

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Objective: Antibiotics are essential with inappropriate use leading to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Currently, little is known about antibiotic use among hospitals in Kenya, which is essential to tackle as part of the recent national action plan addressing rising AMR rates. Consequently, the objective was to overcome this gap in a leading referral hospital in Kenya. The findings will subsequently be used to develop quality improvement programs for this and other hospitals in Kenya. Methods: This was a point prevalence survey. Data on antibiotic use were abstracted from patient medical records by a pharmacy team. Findings: The prevalence of antibiotic prescribing was 54.7%, highest in the intensive care unit and isolation wards. Most antibiotics were for treatment (75.4%) rather than prophylaxis (29.0%). The majority of patients on surgical prophylaxis were on prolonged duration (>1 day), with only 9.6% on a single dose as per current guidelines. Penicillins (46.9%) followed by cephalosporins (44.7%) were the most prescribed antibiotic classes. The indication for antibiotic use was documented in only 37.3% of encounters. Generic prescribing was 62.5% and empiric prescribing was seen in 82.6% of encounters. Guideline compliance was 45.8%. Conclusion: Several areas for improvement were identified including addressing prolonged duration for prophylaxis, extensive prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics, high rates of empiric prescribing, and lack of documenting the indication for antimicrobials. Initiatives are ongoing to address this with pharmacists playing a key role.


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