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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2019
Volume 8 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 105-180

Online since Wednesday, October 16, 2019

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Practical problems of medication use in the elderly Malaysians and their beliefs and attitudes toward deprescribing of medications p. 105
Marhanis Salihah Omar, Amiruliana Hendri Ariandi, Noorlaili Mohd Tohit
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_19_35  PMID:31728340
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of practical problems with medications use experienced by elderly patients and the management strategy employed to overcome the problems. This study also aimed to evaluate the belief and attitude of elderly patients toward deprescribing. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among elderly patients that seeking treatment in a primary care clinic in Malaysia from September to November 2018 using a set of researcher-assisted and validated questionnaire on their consent. Findings: A total of 182 elderly patients were included in this study. A majority of participants (n = 87, 47.8%) admitted experiencing practical problems with their medication use. There are varieties of choice of management strategy employed by elderly patients to overcome the problems. For the willingness to deprescribing, there were positive correlation for patients' age (rs (182) =0.183, P < 0.05) and number of medications (rs (182) =0.271, P < 0.01) with the burden factor. There were also a negative correlation of age (rs (182) = −0.174, P < 0.05) and number of medication (rs (182) = −0.176, P < 0.04) with appropriateness of medications. Conclusion: A majority of Malaysian elderly experience practical problems with their medication use. Elderly patients' belief and attitudes toward deprescribing were influenced by age and number of medications.
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The role of pharmacists in cardiovascular disease prevention: Qualitative studies from the United Kingdom and Greece p. 112
Aliki Peletidi, Shereen Nabhani-Gebara, Reem Kayyali
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_19_3  PMID:31728341
Objective: In the United Kingdom (UK), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the second main cause of death (27.4%) and the leading cause of death in Greece, accounting for 48% incidences. Pharmacists, the most accessible health-care professionals, can have a key role in all stages of CVD prevention. This study aimed to explore the current and future role of pharmacists in CVD prevention, focusing on two European countries, the United Kingdom and Greece. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 community pharmacists; 20 in the UK and 20 in Greece. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. Findings: Five main themes were identified: current pharmacists' role, future pharmacists' role, communication, resources and tools, and knowledge. Whereas pharmacists in the UK use a patient-centered approach, Greek pharmacists use a paternalistic approach.Nevertheless, the majority found it difficult to initiate a consultation. Both the UK and Greek pharmacists primarily focus on secondary CVD prevention, while dispensing prescribed medications, which is their main current role. Greek pharmacists recognized a potential role in primary prevention and early screening of CVD through the initiation of CVD prevention services with a weight management program being proposed. Barriers identified for a role in CVD prevention included: high workload in Greece and reimbursement issues and interprofessional relations in the UK. Conclusion: Pharmacists in both countries perceive having a potential role in CVD prevention based on their accessibility and customer relations. The challenges include a closer working relationship with other clinicians, communication/consultation skills training, and developing a sustainable funding model for the service.
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The association between proton pump inhibitors and myocardial infarction: What do food and drug administration data tell us? p. 123
Jiun Ming Tan, Richard Parsons, Tin Fei Sim, Ya Ping Lee
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_19_73  PMID:31728342
Objective: There is limited and conflicting evidence on the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and myocardial infarction (MI). This study aims to examine the occurrence of MI associated with PPI use from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System database. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using data from the FDA dated from December 2013 to April 2018. Standard descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic information. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between the independent variables and MI. Findings: Among the 52,443 individuals who were taking a PPI and experienced an adverse event which was registered on the FDA database, 726 (1.38%) experienced MI. Of all the PPIs, esomeprazole had the largest proportion of users experiencing MI (1.81%). Compared to other PPIs, esomeprazole was associated with a significantly higher rate of MI (odds ratio [OR] =1.53, P < 0.001), whereas lansoprazole was associated with a lower rate of MI (OR = 0.74, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Among the PPIs, esomeprazole appeared to have the highest risk of MI. Although the observed associations do not infer causality, this study highlighted a need for further studies to determine if a PPI, especially esomeprazole, can indeed cause MI.
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Clinical features, treatment, prognosis, and mortality in paraquat poisonings: A hospital-based study in Iran p. 129
Zohreh Oghabian, June Williams, Mohammad Mohajeri, Samaneh Nakhaee, Saeedeh Shojaeepour, Alireza Amirabadizadeh, Samira Elhamirad, Morteza Hajihosseini, Borhan Mansouri, Omid Mehrpour
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_71  PMID:31728343
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the demographics, clinical characteristics, fatal dose, the efficacy of treatments, and prognosis in paraquat (PQ) poisoning in the Kerman Province of Iran. Methods:This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 126 PQ poisoned patients who were referred to Afzalipour Hospital during 2006–2015. Demographic variables such as age and gender, signs and symptoms of poisoning, the estimated ingested dosage of PQ, and clinical outcome were extracted from medical records. Patients were compared and categorized into two groups considering the outcome: survivors and nonsurvivors. Patients with nonoral exposures, combined drug exposures, PQ exposures more than 24 h before the presentation, and critical underlying diseases were not included in the study. Findings: Our results indicated that the mean dose of PQ used by all patients was 2358 mg, which was reported as 1846 and 2812 mg in females and males, respectively. Moreover, the results showed that the highest mortality rate was in patients with respiratory distress, followed by oral ulceration and excess salivation. In all PQ-poisoned patients, the dose of greater than approximately 2250 mg predicted death with 86.2% specificity and 75.7% sensitivity. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the mortality rate in PQ-poisoned patients depended on the dose of poison, blood sugar level, and aspartate transaminase levels. Our results suggest that these parameters have excellent prognostic value for the prediction of mortality.
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Evaluation of pain assessment and management in critically Ill intubated patients in a referral university hospital in Iran p. 137
Babak Alikiaie, Sarah Mousavi, Ali Ebrahimi, Zahra Foroughi
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_81  PMID:31728344
Objective: This study aims to evaluate current pain assessment and management in critically ill patients and to describe (1) pain management episode, according to the behavioral pain scale (BPS), and (2) the effectiveness of analgesics, according to the recommendation of guidelines. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 60 intubated critically ill patients was selected from the intensive care units (ICUs). A researcher evaluated the patient' pain severity using the BPS tool in patients receiving analgesics according to nurses' note. At each time of analgesic administration, the BPS score was recorded, and this process was repeated 72 h later. The appropriateness of pharmacological interventions was assessed according to the American College of Critical Care Medicine guideline. Findings: The most prescribed analgesic was morphine sulfate (48.3%) followed by fentanyl (23.3%). 55% of analgesics on day 1 and 25% on day 3 were prescribed appropriately according to the guideline recommendation and BPS score. Morphine was the most effective drug (17 patients out of 29). Even though a BPS score was <5, 26 patients received analgesics. Conclusion: Quality of pain assessment and management in our setting is inappropriate and inadequate, which leads to over- or under-use of analgesics. The lack of an established pain protocol may contribute to this situation.
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Impact of clinical pharmacist's interventions on potential drug–Drug interactions in the cardiac care units of two university hospitals in Shiraz, South of Iran p. 143
Mojtaba Shafiekhani, Negin Moosavi, Dena Firouzabadi, Soha Namazi
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_88  PMID:31728345
Objective: The main objective of this study aimed to assess drug–drug interactions (DDIs) in the cardiac care unit (CCU) and cardiac surgery units and the role of a clinical pharmacist in detecting and preventing the expected DDIs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the CCU Units of Nemazee and Shahid Faghihi Hospitals, two referral hospitals in Shiraz, South of Iran, from August to February 2016. Patients older than 18 years, who were admitted and had received >24 h of inpatient services in these wards with two or more medication orders, were included in this study. All medication orders were evaluated by a pharmacist and DDIs were examined based on the Lexi-Interact™ software. In cases with serious DDIs (D or X), the physicians and nurses were informed, and intervention was conducted by a clinical pharmacist. Findings: A total of 3706 medical orders were evaluated. 6478 DDIs were detected, of which, 446 (6.88%) belonged to Classes D and X, and a total of 43.43% of all hospitalizations had at least one DDI. Factors with the most considerable influence on DDIs included an increased number of prescribed medications and patients underlying disease. The physicians accepted 62% of the interventions. The most frequent drugs responsible for interactions of Classes C, D, and X were aspirin, warfarin, and clopidogrel, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that a significant number of clinical DDIs exist in hospitalized patients, especially among consumers of warfarin and aspirin. The role of a clinical pharmacist in preventing such interactions and safer pharmacotherapy management for hospitalized patients is essential.
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Antibiotic prescribing patterns at a leading referral hospital in Kenya: A point prevalence survey p. 149
Lydia Momanyi, Sylvia Opanga, David Nyamu, Margaret Oluka, Amanj Kurdi, Brian Godman
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_68  PMID:31728346
Objective: Antibiotics are essential with inappropriate use leading to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Currently, little is known about antibiotic use among hospitals in Kenya, which is essential to tackle as part of the recent national action plan addressing rising AMR rates. Consequently, the objective was to overcome this gap in a leading referral hospital in Kenya. The findings will subsequently be used to develop quality improvement programs for this and other hospitals in Kenya. Methods: This was a point prevalence survey. Data on antibiotic use were abstracted from patient medical records by a pharmacy team. Findings: The prevalence of antibiotic prescribing was 54.7%, highest in the intensive care unit and isolation wards. Most antibiotics were for treatment (75.4%) rather than prophylaxis (29.0%). The majority of patients on surgical prophylaxis were on prolonged duration (>1 day), with only 9.6% on a single dose as per current guidelines. Penicillins (46.9%) followed by cephalosporins (44.7%) were the most prescribed antibiotic classes. The indication for antibiotic use was documented in only 37.3% of encounters. Generic prescribing was 62.5% and empiric prescribing was seen in 82.6% of encounters. Guideline compliance was 45.8%. Conclusion: Several areas for improvement were identified including addressing prolonged duration for prophylaxis, extensive prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics, high rates of empiric prescribing, and lack of documenting the indication for antimicrobials. Initiatives are ongoing to address this with pharmacists playing a key role.
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Effect of hospital pharmacist counseling on clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients p. 155
Wiwiet Nurwidya Hening, Ratu Ayu Dewi Sartika, Rani Sauriasari
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_19_67  PMID:31728347
Objective: In Indonesia, the role of a hospital pharmacist in pharmaceutical care is still limited or even absent. This study aimed to determine whether counseling by a pharmacist could improve medication adherence, controlling the glycemic status, lipid profile, and blood pressure of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatients. Methods: We conducted an interventional study at RSUD Kota Depok, a secondary public hospital, Indonesia, from April to October 2018. Counseling was given three times during the 4-month study. The study design was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest group design on 77 respondents divided into intervention group (IGs) (n = 39 people) who received counseling and booklets from the hospital pharmacist and control group (CG) (n = 38 people) who were only given the booklets. We measured adherence with the Medication Adherence Questionnaire and conducted blood tests for fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PPBG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TG), and blood pressure measurements. Findings: In the IG, adherence parameters such as HbA1c and lipid profile improved, whereas in the CG, there were no statistically significant changes in clinical parameters and even nonadherence score increased (P = 0.008). IG showed statistically significant improvement in medication adherence, in parameters such as FBG, PPBG, and HbA1c, compared to CG. Based on the Chi-square test, IG also showed a statistically significant improvement in the number of controlled FBG (P = 0.05) and HbA1c (P < 0.001) compared to CG. In addition, a multivariate analysis showed that counseling by hospital pharmacist was 2.764 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.096–6.794) and 9.964 times (95% CI: 3.434–28.917) better than no counseling in improvement of FBG and HbA1c, respectively. However, the significance disappeared after adjusted by type of medicine, duration of diabetes mellitus drug use, and medication adherence. Conclusion: Hospital pharmacist counseling is an important and significant factor in improving FBG and HbA1c levels of T2DM outpatients.
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Antibiotic utilization in Iran 2000–2016: Pattern analysis and benchmarking with organization for economic co-operation and development Countries p. 162
Hadi Abbasian, Mohammad Hajimolaali, Alireza Yektadoost, Saman Zartab
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_19_42  PMID:31728348
Objectives: Antibiotic resistance is the main threat to health all over the world. The consumption of antibiotics is one of the factors causing the emergence of multidrug resistance. The purpose of this study was to recognize the patterns, trends, and changes of consumption in Iran and to compare them with those of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Methods: The data were collected from a national pharmaceutical wholesale data bank. Defined daily dose (DDD) or DDDs per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) was calculated as a standard indicator for the consumption over 17 years. Results: Were benchmarked with the consumption of OECD countries. Drug utilization 90% (DU90%) method was used to assess the drug consumption pattern. Findings: The antibiotic consumption jumped up from 33.6 DID to 60 DID from 2000 to 2016. Compared to the average consumption of OECD countries, Iran has consumed antibiotics almost triple times. There were 9–11 chemical substances in the DU90% list during these years. Changes in DU90% list occurred within antibiotics classes during the study period. Although the total consumption growth was equal to 79% during these years, consumption of some pharmacological subgroups such as sulfonamide and aminoglycosides has decreased. Conclusion: Albeit the existence of surveillance system for health-related infectious diseases, the consumption of antibiotics has increased drastically, which illustrates the necessity of comprehensive and effective national antibiotic stewardship.
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Drug therapeutic failures as a cause of admission to an intensive care unit at a university hospital p. 168
Jair Antonio Ruiz-Garzon, Camilo Andrés Rojas-Velandia, Carlos-Alberto Calderon-Ospina
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_69  PMID:31728349
Objective: Drug therapeutic failures (TFs) are included in pharmacovigilance reporting, as some authors consider them a type of adverse drug reaction. Given their high frequency in Colombia, we studied their importance as a cause of admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study. Clinical records of patients who arrived at the emergency service of a third-care level university hospital were reviewed. Information was collected by a resident in clinical toxicology, and each case was validated and analyzed by a research team using the algorithm proposed by Vaca González and Schumock and Thornton criteria for preventability to evaluate the existence of possible medication errors. Findings: In total, 697 clinical records were evaluated and 18 patients presented TFs (2.6%, 95% confidence interval 1.5%–4.1%) as the cause of admission to the ICU. The most frequent TFs were seizures (56%) and hypertension (28%). The most commonly associated medications were valproic acid (28%) and losartan (28%). Ten cases (56%) were associated with drug misuse and the same number of cases was preventable, according to Schumock and Thornton criteria. Conclusion: This is the first study assessing TFs as a cause of admission to the ICU in the Colombian population. The frequency of TFs in our study was similar to that described in the literature; being the most common cause the inappropriate drug use, particularly for drugs with complex kinetics, such as antiepileptic drugs.
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The effect of demographic and social factors on the decision-making of community pharmacists in ethical dilemmas p. 174
Kingston Rajiah, Rajesh Venaktaraman
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_19_15  PMID:31728350
Objective: The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of demographic and social factors on the decision-making of community pharmacists when confronted with ethical dilemmas during their professional practice. Methods:This was a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 1057 community pharmacists were approached. The final participants were 742. Independent-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze the factors (age, gender, work experience, education qualification, number of pharmacists per pharmacy, and pharmacy location). Findings: Older pharmacists, experienced pharmacists, and urban pharmacists have less ethical dilemma compared to the younger pharmacists, less work experience pharmacists, and rural pharmacists, respectively. Conclusion: Individual factors such as age, gender, work experience, and educational level and organizational factors such as the number of pharmacists in a pharmacy and location of pharmacy may influence the ethical dilemma of community pharmacists.
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Promising novel treatment against keloids: Antivascular endothelial growth factor agents p. 178
Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini, Ali Saffaei, Mahdi Hadian
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_19_58  PMID:31728351
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Donor's versus recipient's demographic data for estimating kidney function in kidney transplant recipients p. 179
Morteza Nabiee, Simin Dashti-Khavidaki
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_19_23  PMID:31728352
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