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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2018
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-56

Online since Wednesday, April 18, 2018

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EDITORIAL  

The first Euro-Asian congress of pharmacoepidemiology: A real instance for a multidisciplinary approach p. 1
Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_19  PMID:29755992
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

The role of hydroxychloroquine as a steroid-sparing agent in the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia: A review of the literature p. 4
Fatemeh Mohammadpour, Mona Kargar, Molouk Hadjibabaie
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_60  PMID:29755993
Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease in which platelet destruction causes thrombocytopenia. Due to the known steroid toxicities, alternative agents have been evaluated for the treatment of these patients. We aimed to review the literature and find evidences regarding the potential benefits of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a steroid-sparing agent in the treatment of ITP. We searched English language articles within Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus. Cohorts, clinical trials, case reports, conference papers, and letters were included. We excluded papers which either focused on administration of HCQ for non-ITP conditions or studies on other treatment modalities for ITP. In total, 54 ITP cases with either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated ITP were included in four studies (SLE-associated ITP; n = 23). All patients have received corticosteroids previously and >90% received other agents with HCQ concomitantly. Overall response was achieved in more than 60% of patients. Sustained response in 18 (33.3%) patients was associated with no treatment or HCQ alone. One of the studies reported a significantly better response in patients with definite SLE compared to those with positive antinuclear antibody and no definite SLE. Similarly, another study found a nonsignificant trend toward better long-term response in patients with definite SLE compared to incomplete SLE. The included articles reported the efficacy of the HCQ with acceptable safety. Available data regarding the use of HCQ for this indication are spare and more studies are needed in ITP with different severity. It seems that HCQ can be considered as an option in the treatment of SLE-associated ITP, and although promising, currently, the place of HCQ in the treatment of ITP continues to evolve.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Therapeutic effects of low-dose bismuth subcitrate on symptoms and health-related quality of life in adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome: A clinical trial p. 13
Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Ardalan Memar, Yasaman Mohamadi, Nooshin Rezakhani, Parastoo Safazadeh, Sarina Aghaha, Payman Adibi
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_56  PMID:29755994
Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that causes abdominal pain or discomfort and alters bowel with no organic abnormalities. Treatment options for IBS have increased in number in the past decade, and clinicians should not be limited to use only conventional treatments to cure it. This article is a placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the therapeutic effects of low-dose bismuth subcitrate on symptoms and the health-related quality of life in adult patients with IBS. Methods: This clinical trial was done during July 2015 to January 2016 in Isfahan, Iran. For each of three subtypes (IBS-constipation dominant, IBS-diarrhea dominant [IBS-D], and IBS-mixed), we included patients with IBS aged 18–70 years, diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria. In this study, 129 eligible patients were enrolled, of which 119 continued on the protocol to the end of study. They were allocated in placebo group (Group A) and intervention group (Group B). The medication for Group B was mebeverine and bismuth subcitrate and for Group A was mebeverine and placebo of bismuth subcitrate. Initially, the patients of both groups completed IBS-related questionnaires (IBS-quality of life, IBS-severity scoring system), then given drugs for a 4-week period (1st on-drug period). Then, both groups were given only mebeverine hydrochloride 200 mg capsule for another 4 weeks (off-drug period). At last, Group A and Group B were given medication (2nd on-drug period), the same as 1st on-drug period. Findings: With respect to quality of life, the trend of IBS-QOL score changed significantly during the study period in both the intervention and placebo groups; however, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (P < 0.005). In subgroups analysis, quality of life significantly improved in IBS-D during the study from the first measurement to the end of study (P = 0.004). The trends of changes in the severity of pain during the study between the intervention and control group were significantly different (P = 0.018). Conclusion: According to our study, IBS-D patients' symptoms improved significantly with bismuth therapy. We found that adding low-dose bismuth to mebeverine in nonresponsive IBS patients in conventional treatment could be helpful.
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Assessing medical prescription forms as a communication tool in trans-european health care p. 22
Afonso Miguel Cavaco, Miguel Mourato, Sofia Ferreira, Selen Yeğenoğlu
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_61  PMID:29755995
Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the medical prescription forms in European Union (EU) countries, evaluating their convergence toward the implementation of cross-border care, as proposed by the existing EU health-care directives. It also aims to assess how the existing EU prescription models fulfill higher standards of medication prescribing quality and patient safety. Methods: Prescription forms from all EU countries were purposively collected. The prescription fields and other content elements were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Forms were statistically compared with each other and a theoretical EU cross-border prescription form, using hierarchical cluster analysis and nonparametric testing. Findings: None of the EU countries' prescriptions include all the elements required by the cross-border legislation (CBL), with most countries having seven or less mandatory elements. Cluster analysis revealed that countries with similar prescription forms are geographically nearer. Important elements from the EU directive to assure patient safety are also absent such as the International Classification of Diseases, the patient's ID according to the European Health Insurance Card, and the patient's contact. However, Western and Nordic countries showed higher standardization when compared to the CBL and model. Conclusion: Political action is still needed to harmonize medical prescription forms between countries, serving the common goal of trans-European health care and to increase EU patients' safety using medications and other prescribed treatments.
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Evaluation of clinical pharmacy services in the intensive care unit of a Tertiary University Hospital in the Northwest of Iran p. 30
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Arman Kalami, Kamran Shadvar, Taher Entezari-Maleki, Hadi Hamishehkar
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_82  PMID:29755996
Objective: Current literature indicates that the presence of clinical pharmacists in hospitals results in improved patient care, rational drug therapy, and treatment costs. This study assessed the clinical pharmacy services in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Methods: During a 9-month cross-sectional study (2014–2015), the clinical pharmacy interventions in 27 sessions and educational activities for patients and health-care professionals were randomly assessed based on the Australian guideline and standard of practice for clinical pharmacy. The interventions of clinical pharmacist were evaluated in terms of their clinical importance. Findings: In this study, a total of 832 interventions on 242 patients were performed by the clinical pharmacist, and approximately 93.6% of the interventions were approved by the attending physician. Most interventions concerned adding a new medication to a drug regimen or switching to a needed new medication. Each patient received an average of three interventions. The clinical pharmacist provided drug information to employees and medical staff in 108 of the total 832 interventions (13%). Medical residents who were surveyed indicated that the quality of education, research, and patient care was improved by the attendance of a clinical pharmacist. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the collaboration of a clinical pharmacist with the medical staff of an ICU can improve pharmacotherapy approach and increase the quality of education.
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Bispectral index in poisoning cases with multi-drug ingestion: A predictable role for early endotracheal intubation p. 36
Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Leila Halakoei, Ahmad Yaraghi, Mitra Jabalameli, Rihanak Talakoub, Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_8  PMID:29755997
Objective: Bispectral index (BIS) is one of the several methods used to monitor the depth of anesthesia. Poisoning with ingestion of different drugs is one of the most common poisonings that have different clinical signs from drowsiness to coma. This study was performed to compare the BIS index number in poisoned patients with multi drugs ingestion with or without the need for endotracheal intubation. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on poisoned patients with ingestion of different drugs referring to Clinical Toxicology Department of Noor University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. The clinical signs and symptoms and the vital signs at the admission time were measured, and the required therapies were given. The endotracheal intubation was done for patients who had the indication of intubation. BIS was monitored and compared for all patients with or without a need for intubation on the admission time and time of endotracheal intubation. Obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software. Findings: At the admission time, the mean (standard error [SE]) BIS index value for poisoned patients who needed endotracheal intubation was 66.47 ± 2.57 in comparison with 85.21 ± 1.47 for patients who did not need intubation (P < 0.001). The results of receiver operating characteristic curve (mean ± SE) showed the discrimination was excellent for BIS (0.899 ± 0.04; 95% confidence interval: 0.81–0.98) (P < 0.0001). BIS <79.5 had the sensitivity 88% and specificity 87% for endotracheal intubation. Conclusion: BIS is an appropriate index for prediction of the need to intubation in poisoned patients with ingestion of different drugs.
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Application of a pharmacokinetic model of metformin clearance in a population with acute myeloid leukemia p. 41
Alice C Ceacareanu, Geoffrey W Brown, Hoda A Moussa, Zachary A P. Wintrob
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_53  PMID:29755998
Objective: We aimed to estimate the metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) risk by assessing retrospectively the renal clearance variability and applying a pharmacokinetic (PK) model of metformin clearance in a population diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: All adults with preexisting DM and newly diagnosed AML at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were reviewed (January 2003–December 2010, n = 78). Creatinine clearance (CrCl) and total body weight distributions were used in a two-compartment PK model adapted for multiple dosing and modified to account for actual intra- and inter-individual variability. Based on this renal function variability evidence, 1000 PK profiles were simulated for multiple metformin regimens with the resultant PK profiles being assessed for safe CrCl thresholds. Findings: Metformin 500 mg up to three times daily was safe for all simulated profiles with CrCl ≥25 mL/min. Furthermore, the estimated overall MALA risk was below 10%, remaining under 5% for 500 mg given once daily. CrCl ≥65.25 mL/min was safe for administration in any of the tested regimens (500 mg or 850 mg up to three times daily or 1000 mg up to twice daily). Conclusion: PK simulation-guided prescribing can maximize metformin's beneficial effects on cancer outcomes while minimizing MALA risk.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION Top

Prescribing pattern and prescription-writing quality of antineoplastic agents in the capital city of a middle-income developing country p. 46
Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi, Asiyeh Amouei, Ava Mansouri, Aarefeh Jafarzadeh Kohneloo, Molouk Hadjibabaie
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_74  PMID:29755999
Objective: Cancer is a global health concern with growing incidence worldwide. Chemotherapy is the main treatment modality in many malignancies. This study aimed at evaluation of antineoplastic prescribing pattern and prescription-writing quality in the capital city of Iran. Methods: All dispensed chemotherapy prescriptions by four main authorized pharmacies in Tehran during 1 month were targeted. Prescriptions with no antineoplastic medications or written by specialties other than oncology-related fields were excluded from the study. From the total 10,944 eligible prescriptions, 2736 (25%) prescriptions were selected randomly for data extraction. Findings: Total 5784 antineoplastic medications were written by 239 physicians; most of them were adult hematologist–oncologist (69.0%) and male (86.6%). Each prescription contained an average of 1.8 (±0.9) antineoplastic medications. The most widely prescribed antineoplastic agents were cyclophosphamide (16.2%), fluorouracil (15.2%), doxorubicin (12.8%), and oxaliplatin (11.0%). The quality of prescription writing was poor; diagnosis, drug dosing, treatment schedule, and instructions were mostly absent. Sixty percent of drugs were written in brand names. Conclusion: The prescribing writing quality was poor and patients were at great risk of medication errors. Prompt action including policies and educational strategies should be taken to assure effective and safe patient treatment with antineoplastic medications.
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CASE REPORT Top

Bullous fixed drug eruption following ibuprofen ingestion p. 51
Seyed Amirhossein Fazeli, Morteza Abbasi, Hadi Jalali, Sonia Eskandari, Farzaneh Shamshirgaran, Zahra Dehghani, Reza Golabchifard, Shahram Ghiyasvand, Kaveh Ghannad
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_81  PMID:29756000
Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a drug reaction involving skin and less commonly mucosal membranes. The common manifestation is localized well-demarcated patches or plaques appeared following receiving of a culprit drug. When re-exposure occurs, the rashes will appear at areas involved in previous episodes. Limited reports on bullous FDE due to ibuprofen have been documented before. Herein, we described an elderly man who experienced multifocal lesions in his oral mucosa, penis, and multiple sites of skin following ibuprofen ingestion confirmed as FDE by pathological studies. The culprit drug had been discontinued. Systemic and topical glucocorticoids as well as supportive care had been instituted. The patient's outcome was favorable and his lesions had been recovered within the next weeks. Patient's follow-up showed that he had received ibuprofen again sometime later resulting in anal mucosal lesion and similar penile involvement. In routine clinical practice, mucocutaneous adverse drug reactions should be considered. A high index of suspicion, the detailed medication history, the course of the symptoms, and distributing pattern of the lesions are essential clues for the diagnosis. However, judicious and prompt pathological studies can help to differentiate multifocal bullous FDE from major skin drug reactions such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis.
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