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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2018
Volume 7 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 117-169

Online since Monday, August 27, 2018

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Validating a drug-related problems classification system in outpatient setting in Iran p. 117
Soheil Roshanzamiri, Kaveh Eslami, Farhad Najmeddin, Mandana Izadpanah, Elham Hadidi, Reza Ganji
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_17  
Objective: Medication Therapy Management service (MTMs) has been introduced to improve cooperation among pharmacists and other healthcare professionals in the management of chronic diseases, drug therapy, and patients on polypharmacy. One part of MTMs is detection and resolution of possible drug-related problems (DRPs). Nowadays, numerous DRPs classification systems are available, but due to some defects none of them are currently accepted and implemented universally. The purpose of this study is to design and validate a comprehensive system for classification and documentation of possible DRPs for the Iranian patients. Methods: In this methodological study, four classification systems were studied, and their differences were reviewed, compared. Ultimately, a comprehensive documentation system was developed and tested for validity using experts' opinions. Findings: A comprehensive list of 53 DRPs under eight categories was developed and examined for validity. After collecting the data and validity assessment, questions with content validity ratio of <0.4 and content validity index of <70% were excluded and modified. Finally, with the exclusion and modification of eight DRPs, a modified DRPs list was created. Conclusion: According to the universality and validity assessment and based on consensus of 20 experts, this DRPs list can be used to regulate the standard operation procedure of outpatient clinics in Iran, and could act toward standardization of this service.
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Economic evaluation of using pesticides to control cutaneous leishmaniasis in Isfahan p. 123
Ehsanallah Jafari, Maryam Moeeni, Reza Fadaei, Reza Rezayatmand
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_95  
Objective: Pesticides have been used as the main part of the national cutaneous leishmaniasis control program for serveral years in Iran. However, the cost-effectiveness of this strategy has not been yet analyzed. The aim of this study is to to analyze the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of using pesticides as the main strategy to prevent rural CL in Isfahan. Methods: This is an economic evaluation study performed from a health system perspective to estimate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of the control strategy with and without pesticides. The outcome measures are incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The cost-effectiveness and cost-utility have been analyzed by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Data of cost and incidence rate obtained from the health centers of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Vice-Chancellery for Health. The disability weight was obtained from the literature. A one-way sensitivity analysis was applied with a 20% increase and decrease in costs. Findings: The total cost of control program in 2013 and 2014 were US$578,453 (ppp) and US$14,978.2 (ppp), respectively. The incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis was estimated at 1396 and 1277 (per 100,000 population in hyperendemic areas where pesticides have been used) in 2013 and 2014, respectively. DALY lost due to disease was estimated to be 8.024 and 7.342 in 2013 and 2014, correspondingly. Both the cost-effectiveness and the cost-utility analyses resulted in negative ICERs, lying in the rejection area of the ICER plane. Conclusion: The use of pesticides to prevent cutaneous leishmaniasis (rural sicker) in Isfahan province has not proved to offer a reduction in the incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis as well as reduction in DALYs lost. However, due to data availability limitation, the time frame for this study was limited. A prospective design with longitudinal data is recommended to be used by future research. Other alternatives to raise population awareness about different aspects of disease should be also considered for evaluation.
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Effect of topical chamomile oil on postoperative bowel activity after cesarean section: A randomized controlled trial p. 128
Ebrahim Khadem, Mahboobeh Shirazi, Leila Janani, Roja Rahimi, Parastoo Amiri, Fereshteh Ghorat
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_103  
Objective: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication after surgery that requires a multifactorial therapeutic approach. This study aims to assess the effect of topical chamomile oil on postoperative bowel activity after cesarian section. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was carried out in 2015 at Chamran Hospital in Iran. A block randomization list was generated for 142 parturient divided into three groups. In the intervention group (arm A) (n = 47), chamomile oil was applied topically on abdominal region after the stability of the patient. Placebo group (arm B) (n = 47) received placebo oil and control group (arm C) (n = 48) had no intervention. A recovery program was used after surgery for all participants. The primary outcome was time to first flatus. Secondary outcomes were time to bowel sounds, defecation, return of appetite, hospital stay, and rate of nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain. Findings: Times to first flatus were significantly shorter in Group A (arm A vs. B, P < 0.001 and arm A vs. C, P < 0.001). In addition, time to first bowel sounds (arm A vs. B, P < 0.001 and arm A vs. C, P < 0.001) and return of appetite (arm A vs. B, P < 0.001 and arm A vs. C, P < 0.001) were significantly shorter in arm A. The times from surgery to first defecation were shorter in Group A versus B and C. However, there were no statistically significant differences between three groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that topical chamomile oil has a potential therapeutic effect on gastrointestinal motility and can reduce the duration of POI.
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Anemia, depression, and suicidal attempts in women: Is there a relationship? p. 136
Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Raana Ahmadi, Sara Babazadeh, Ahmad Yaraghi, Massoumeh Sadeghi, Payam Peymani, Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_25  
Objective: Suicide is a social health problem worldwide. Anemia has been associated with depression. Since it remains debated whether anemia is associated with suicide independently of depression, we evaluate this probable association in women who attempted suicide through acute poisoning. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and performed on women who attempted suicide through intentional poisoning with age more than 18 years old. Different variables were evaluated and compared in patients with respect to anemia, depression, other psychiatric diseases and history of suicide. Independent t-tests and binary logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Findings: Nearly 26.2% of the women had anemia (n = 55). Most women with anemia were in the age group of 20–40 years (68.8%). 52.2% of the women were married. Mixed-drug poisoning was the most common (60.1%) followed by pesticide (8.9%), and antipsychiatric medications (8.4%). There was a significant difference in duration of hospitalization between anemic and nonanemic patients. Nearly 72.7% of the patients survived without complications. Anemia and depression were not significant predictive factors for depression and suicide. However, in our patients, the presence of other underlaying psychiatric disorders was a risk factor for suicidal attempt through acute poisoning. Conclusion: In women who attempted suicide through acute poisoning, anemia and depression were not predicting factors for suicide. However, the presence of other underlying psychiatric psychiatric disorders had a predictive value for the outcome of treatment. Length of hospital stay was also correlated with anemia.
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Trial of atorvastatin on serum interleukin-6, total antioxidant capacity, C-reactive protein, and alpha-1 antitrypsin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease p. 141
Anahita Arian, Sayyed Gholamreza Mortazavi Moghadam, Tooba Kazemi, Mahmood Zardast, Asghar Zarban
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_17_93  
Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A clinical trial study conducted on 42 cases of COPD (Vali-Asr Hospital, Birjand, East of Iran, years 2014–16). Patients were randomly assigned to 21 controls and 21 cases who treated with atorvastatin (40 mg/day for 6 months). Inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting β-agonist were administrated in both groups. The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (registration number: IRCT2016042527594N1). TAC was measured by ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine IL-6, AAT, and hs-CRP. Spearman's rho test and Wilcoxon, Mann–Whitney, paired, and independent t-tests were used for data analysis in SPSS 23. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Findings: A number of patients completed the study were 16 in atorvastatin and 18 in control group. Mean increments (μmol/L) of TAC (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) were 12.81 ± 605.25 (P = 0.68) in atorvastatin and 160.26 ± 280.54 (P = 0.14) in control group. Mean decrements of IL-6, CRP, and AAT (mean ± SD) were 1.41 ± 5.51 (P = 0.71), 0.98 ± 5.68 (P = 0.72), and 10.94 ± 46.83 (P = 0.21) in atorvastatin and 0.91 ± 11.70 (P = 0.75), 3.23 ± 7.00 (P = 0.19), and 18.77 ± 55.90 (P = 0.21) in control group. Conclusion: Atorvastatin did not succeed in maintaining TAC and CRP reduction. However, less reduction in AAT and more reduction in IL-6 in the atorvastatin group would be likely a beneficial effect in COPD.
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Management of febrile neutropenia: A description of clinical and microbiological findings by focusing on risk factors and pitfalls p. 147
Fatemeh Karimi, Farzaneh Ashrafi, Azadeh Moghaddas, Ali Derakhshandeh
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_16  
Objective: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is one of the most serious clinical problems in patients with hematologic malignancies and patients receiving chemotherapy. The present study was implemented to determine precisely how FN is managed in most referral hospitals in Isfahan (Iran) and what are the characteristics of FN patients as well as risk factors associated with FN development. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study performed over a period of 6 months on patients hospitalized in the Hematology-Oncology Center of Omid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. The information was collected by filling the designed data abstraction form. Findings: A total of 115 oncology patients were admitted with or encountered to FN. This equates to a cumulative incidence of 1.26% of FN cases per 1000 oncology admissions. The average age was 49.5 ± 18.02 years (range 18–85 years), with 42.6% of patients being female. The most frequently prescribed antibiotic agents were meropenem (91.3%) and vancomycin (47.82%) alone or in combination. Empiric antifungal agents initiated in 20.86% of cases, and we could not find any patients who needed to receive antiviral treatment. From all positive cultures, Gram-positive microorganisms were the most found pathogen. Among them, female sex (42.6%) and lymphopenia (26.5%) were the most noted predictors. Neutropenia (81.7%) was the most reported risk factors for serious complications. Conclusion: Although our center is university-affiliated, there are still several points, and pitfalls must be considered and revised in the management of FN patients. Obtaining and assessing the samples microbiologically and antibiotic therapy accordingly were the most troublesome complications.
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Albumin utilization evaluation in a major teaching hospital in Iran: Recommendations for guideline development p. 157
Maryam Farasatinasab, Atefeh Amouzegar, Saeed Safari, Behrooz Ghanbari, Majid Darkahian, Sepideh Emami, Nashmin Pakdaman, Maryam Salili
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_4  
Objective: Human albumin solution is an expensive colloidal preparation which is commonly used in clinical practice. Due to high cost of albumin, increased rate of the inappropriate use worldwide, and many other reasons, it is imperative to establish a practical protocol to use albumin products and limit its usage. The aim of this study was to identify albumin utilization patterns in a teaching hospital and to demonstrate the importance of the need to reconsider prescribing strategies for albumin administration. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed between August 2016 and December 2016 at Firoozgar Hospital affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. All albumin prescriptions for adult patients during the study period were enrolled for appropriateness evaluation according to the latest evidence-based studies and guidelines. Findings: Among 320 albumin prescriptions, 168 (52.5%) were inappropriate according to the current evidence. The most common irrational causes for the albumin usage were hypoalbuminemia (23.4%), nutritional support (13.7%), neuroprotection in subarachnoid hemorrhage (3%), pretreatment for cancer surgery (2.8%), edema (1.6%), hepatic failure (1.6%), and paracentesis (3%). The total amount of albumin used for 320 patients was 52,050 g, from which 28,470 g was inappropriate resulting in $97,398 wastage. Conclusion: These findings, along with aforementioned guidelines, support the requirement for physicians' educational programs and proper strategies for appropriate prescriptions and could also be important in modifying the available guidelines concerning expensive drugs such as albumin.
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CASE REPORT Top

Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with erectile dysfunction: Tadalafil as an offending medication p. 164
Alireza Dehghani, Mohammad-Hasan Alemzadeh-Ansari, Marjan Masjedi, Arman Amirkhani, Mohsen Pourazizi
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_29  
Erectile dysfunction (ED) has negative effects on quality of life. The first line of oral medication for this condition is phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I) including Tadalafil. Ocular complications associated with Tadalafil are rare and usually occurred in participant with known risk factors. In this report, we describe and review the related literature of development of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy -associated Tadalafil. A healthy nonsmoking 42-year-old male with a history of ED presented with acute onset of an inferior visual field defect on the right eye. Automated perimetry showed inferior altitudinal loss in the affected eye. The administration of Tadalafil was discontinued as a potential causative agent for this condition. During follow-up, neither improvement signs nor symptoms revealed.
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR Top

A newly proposed management protocol for acute aluminum phosphide poisoning p. 168
Gholamali Dorooshi, Shafeajafar Zoofaghari, Nastaran Eizadi Mood, Farzad Gheshlaghi
DOI:10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_18_12  
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