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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| April-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 31, 2013

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Remifentanil for endotracheal intubation in premature infants: A randomized controlled trial
Zohreh Badiee, Mazyar Vakiliamini, Majid Mohammadizadeh
April-June 2013, 2(2):75-82
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.117387  PMID:24991608
Objective: Endotracheal intubation is a common procedure in neonatal care. The objective of this study was to determine whether the premedication with remifentanil before intubation has analgesic effects in newborn infants. Methods: A total of 40 premature infants who needed endotracheal intubation for intubation-surfactant-extubation method were randomly assigned in two groups of an equal number at two university hospitals. The control group was given 10 μg/kg atropine IV infusions in 1 min and then 2 ml normal saline. In the case group, the atropine was given with the same method and then remifentanil was administered 2 μg/kg IV infusions in 2 min. Findings: For remifentanil and control groups, the mean birth weight were 1761 ± 64 and 1447 ± 63 grams (P = 0.29), and the mean gestational ages were 31.69 ± 3.5 and 30.56 ± 2.8 weeks (P = 0.28), respectively. Using premature infant pain profile score, infants who received remifentanil felt significantly less pain than the control group (15.1 ± 1.6 vs. 7.5 ± 1.4; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the duration of endotracheal intubation procedure (20.8 ± 6 vs. 22.8 ± 7.3 s; P = 0.33), the number of attempts for successful intubation and oxygen desaturation between groups. Conclusion: Premedication with remifentanil has good analgesic effects for endotracheal intubation in premature infants without significant derangements in mean blood pressure and oxygen saturation.
  7 2,762 494
The efficacy of Punica granatum extract in the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis
Parichehr Ghalayani, Behzad Zolfaghary, Ali Reza Farhad, Atefeh Tavangar, Bahram Soleymani
April-June 2013, 2(2):88-92
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.117389  PMID:24991610
Objective: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common, painful ulcerative disorder of the oral cavity with unknown etiology. No documented cure exists and topical application of medications aims to reduce pain associated with this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Punica granatum (PG) extract on the clinical management of RAS. Methods: A total of 40 patients with RAS participated in this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. During three episodes of RAS, the efficacy of topical PG gel (10%) was evaluated. Patients were randomly assigned to use placebo gel or PG gel daily. The time of pain elimination and the time of complete healing were recorded and the pain degree was assessed and recorded by each patients in different time intervals including: Before using the oral gel (day 0), and on days 1, 3, 5, 7 after using the product. Data were analyzed using the repeated measures ANOVA, paired and independent t-test. Findings: Mean time of pain elimination showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between PG group (3.4 ± 1.09) and placebo group (5.9 ± 0.6). The mean duration of complete healing also showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between PG group (5.3 ± 0.81) and placebo group (8.6 ± 0.99). The visual analog scale score in PG group was significantly less than the placebo group in all time intervals (day 1 to day 7) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that PG extract in the form of oral gel (10%) may be beneficial in reducing RAS pain and has a positive effect in reducing the overall time period of complete healing. It was concluded that PG is an effective herbal medicine for the management of RAS.
  6 2,862 457
A survey on the factors influencing the pattern of medicine's use: Concerns on irrational use of drugs
Fatemeh Soleymani, Fariba Ahmadizar, Alipasha Meysamie, Mohammad Abdollahi
April-June 2013, 2(2):59-63
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.117385  PMID:24991605
Objective: Pharmacists have a remarkable role in rational use of drugs by dissemination of drug information to guide patients, physicians, and policy makers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pharmacists' view point about the main factors affecting current drug use pattern regarding rational drug use and the most effective strategies for improving and promoting rational drug use among pharmacists. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, pre-designed questionnaires were filled in convenient sampling by pharmacists who had attended the congress of rational drug use in Tehran, Iran. Findings: A total of 144 pharmacists with the average age of 40.78 years old were enrolled to the study. Data indicated that the most priorities in irrational use of drugs from pharmacists' view point were lack of appropriate cooperation and communication between physicians and pharmacists (39%), pharmacists' low tariff and economic issues (34%), lack of public knowledge about drug usage (45%), and lack of supervisory regulations on pharmacy practice (15.8%). Conclusion: In this study, lack of public knowledge and awareness about appropriate use of medicines was the most important element from pharmacists' viewpoint in occurrence of irrational drug use. Dissemination of information and compiling of diverse strategies in education, management, regulation, and finance can be very efficient due to a strong relationship between drug policies and performance of regulations and supervisions as well as drug services.
  4 2,621 511
Comparison of gabapentin with estrogen for treatment of hot flashes in post-menopausal women
Zahra Allameh, Safoura Rouholamin, Sonia Valaie
April-June 2013, 2(2):64-69
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.117392  PMID:24991606
Objective: Various non-hormonal agents have been used for the treatment of hot flashes in women with menopause. Some studies have reported that gabapentin appears to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the treatment with gabapentin is effective in reducing hot flash frequency and severity and also to compare gabapentin 100 mg/day, 300 mg/day and conjugated estrogen in this regards. Methods: In this comparative clinical trial, 100 post-menopausal women attending outpatient clinics of Isfahan University hospitals were included from April 2008 to February 2009. Participants randomly received gabapentin 300 mg/day, gabapentin 100 mg/day, or conjugated estrogen 0.625 mg/day for 12 weeks. Frequency and severity of hot flashes and adverse effects were compared among the three groups. Findings: From all, 16 participants dropped out. There were no significant differences among the groups before intervention in terms of age, body mass index and baseline hot flash frequency and severity. Hot flash diaries were used to record the frequency and severity of hot flashes. After the treatment period, there was a significant decrease in both severity and frequency of hot flashes in all three groups. Post-hoc analyses showed that the frequency and severity of hot flashes were significantly lower in those who received gabapentin 300 mg/day or estrogen 0.625 mg/day compared to those who received gabapentin 100 mg/day. There was not statistically significant difference between those who received gabapentin 300 mg/day and those who received estrogen. Very few adverse effects, mostly gastrointestinal discomfort were observed in both gabapentin groups (8%). Conclusion: Gabapentin 300 mg/day could be useful to relieve hot flashes in women for whom hormone therapy is not suitable or when hot flashes do not respond to other therapies. Further researches are needed to determine the efficacy of gabapentin use for longer periods or at higher doses.
  3 2,429 340
Antibiotic sensitivity pattern and cost-effectiveness analysis of antibiotic therapy in an Indian tertiary care teaching hospital
Shamungum Sriram, Varghese Aiswaria, Annie Eapen Cijo, Thekkinkattil Mohankumar
April-June 2013, 2(2):70-74
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.117386  PMID:24991607
Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of microorganisms, to study the antibiotic usage pattern, and to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) for the antibiotics prescribed in a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India. Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the General Medicine and Pulmonology departments of the hospital for a period of 6 months. The study was carried out in three phases: A prospective analysis to check the sensitivity pattern of microorganisms to various antibiotics, data extraction and determining the cost of antibiotics and finally evaluation of the sensitivity pattern of microorganisms and the antibiotic usage. A total of 796 documented records were analyzed. Findings: It was found that Escherichia coli was the major organism identified in 36.4% of the isolated specimens, followed by Klebsiella sp. (18.9%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (15.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.4%), and Pseudomonas (9.3%). The sensitivity pattern data of the prospective study revealed that E. coli was highly sensitive to Amikacin (99.3%), Klebsiella to Amikacin (93.8%), Pseudomonas to Meropenem (97.6%), and S. pneumoniae to Ofloxacin (93.8%). In the prescribing pattern study, it was found that the most common disease (21.2%) was found to be lower respiratory tract infection in 51 patients. Cephalosporins (73%), in particular Ceftriaxone (63.5%) was highly prescribed, followed by fluoroquinolones (53.9%). In the CEA, it was revealed that Ceftriaxone was the cost-effective antibiotic with a cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) of 78.27 compared to Levofloxacin, which had a CER of 95.13. Conclusion: Continuous surveillance of susceptibility testing is necessary for cost-effective customization of empiric antibiotic therapy. Furthermore, reliable statistics on antibiotic resistance and policies should be made available.
  3 2,929 549
Pharmaceutical care and medication adherence in management of psychosis in a Nigerian tertiary hospital
Jonathan Danladi, Kakjing D Falang, Raymond A Barde, Nanlok S Jimam, Dauda A Dangiwa, Hafsat O Jimoh
April-June 2013, 2(2):83-87
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.117388  PMID:24991609
Objective: The primary objective of this study is to examine the medication adherence levels (as a function of pharmaceutical care) and its contributing factors in schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotic drugs. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study administering a structured questionnaire to 231 patients. Adherence was measured through patient self-reporting. Association between independent variables and adherence to antipsychotics were measured through odds ratios (OR) in the univariate analysis while the best predictors of adherence were determined through the multiple logistic regressions. Findings: Adherence level was found to be 65.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59.3-71.9%). The following factors were identified to be associated with adherence in the univariate analysis: age (OR 1.088), sex (OR 1.231), employment (OR 0.366), marital status (singles, OR 0.022), drug adherence counseling (OR 11.641), twice a day frequency (OR 8.434), alcohol non-intake (OR 1.469), educational level (primary OR 1.9312, secondary OR 11.022, tertiary OR 4.771), occupation (public servant 6.273). In the multivariate analysis, age, three times a day frequency of drug intake, singles and educational levels such as primary, secondary or tertiary school, strongly affected adherence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although patients adherence level was high (65.8%), there is a need to emphasize that pharmacists spend more time in counseling and educating patients, especially younger ones on drug adherence before any antipsychotic medications are dispensed. Furthermore, patients should be taught the use of adherence devices such as reminders so that adherence to antipsychotic medications can be optimized.
  3 2,109 322
Side effects reported by European consumers for medications for erectile dysfunction
Lise Aagaard, Ebba Holme Hansen
April-June 2013, 2(2):93-95
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.117390  PMID:24991611
Objective: To characterise consumer adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports for phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Methods: We included ADR reports submitted by adults to the European ADR database (EudraVigialnce) from 2007 to 2011. ADRs were classified according to type, seriousness and age and sex of consumers. The unit of analysis was one ADR. Findings: Totally, 328 ADRs were reported for sildenafil and vardenafil, and only 5% of these were serious. The largest number of reported ADRs was found for sildenafil, i.e., "lack of efficacy" and/or "drug efficacy decreased" ( n = 134) and "headache" ( n = 21). Conclusion: ADRs reported by consumers for PDE5 inhibitors were relatively low, and only few ADRs were serious.
  2 2,251 226
Fluoxetine in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome
Forugh Ghaedi
April-June 2013, 2(2):96-96
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.117391  PMID:24991612
  - 2,111 262