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   2014| October-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 25, 2014

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What pharmacy practitioners need to know about ethics in scientific publishing
Lejla Zunic, Izet Masic
October-December 2014, 3(4):112-116
Pharmacy practice is an ever-changing science and profession. We are witnessing many advancement of pharmacy technology, drug-related information and applied clinical pharmacy literature, which influence our every day's life. Thus, new knowledge generated by research and clinical experience widen the knowledge; change the understanding of drugs and their application in therapeutics and every days life. Thus, policy makers, pharmacists, clinicians and researchers must evaluate and use the information existing in the literature to implement in their healthcare delivery. This paper is prepared for pharmacy researchers and pharmacy students and analyzes the major principles of ethical conduct in general science and also closely related topics on ghost authorship, conflict of interest, assigning co-authorship, redundant/repetitive and duplicate publication. Furthermore, the paper provides an insight into fabrication and falsification of data, as the most common form of scientific fraud. Scientific misconduct goes against everything that normal scientific method wants to reach for and pharmacy practitioners as one the first line available health care professionals all round the world should be enough aware of its importance and details when they want to evaluate the medical and pharmaceutical literature and deliver unbiased and ethically published knowledge of drugs both for the research or during consultations for patients care.
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Can Pharmacy Doctors act as valuable assets in rural areas with a physician shortage?
Akram Ahmad, Isha Patel, Muhammad Umair Khan, Jongwha Chang
October-December 2014, 3(4):109-111
  4,371 694 1
Intrathecal Meperidine versus intrathecal Fentanyl for prevention of shivering in lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anesthesia: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Mohammadreza Safavi, Azim Honarmand, Elahe Rahmanikhah, Sajad Badiei, Mohammadali Attari
October-December 2014, 3(4):137-141
Objective: Shivering is an unpleasant sensation for patients who undergoing spinal anesthesia. This randomized double-blind clinical trial study was designed to compare the effect of intrathecal fentanyl with intrathecal meperidine for prevention of shivering in lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anesthesia. Methods: Ninety patients were randomly recruited to receive either 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 20 μg of fentanyl (Group F), or 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.2 mg/kg of meperidine (Group M), or 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus normal saline (Group S). The incidence and intensity of shivering were compared in three groups. Data were analyzed by analysis of variances, Mann-Whitney U-test followed by Chi-square test. Findings: There were not statistically differences in complications and side-effects between three groups. Total incidence of shivering was similar between Groups F and M (16.7% vs. 13.3% respectively, P = 0.72) whereas it was significantly different to Group S (43.3%) (P = 0.025 for Group F vs. S, and P = 0.011 for Group M vs. S). Also the intensity of shivering between Groups F and M was similar (P = 0.66), while it was significantly less in these groups compared to Group S (P = 0.013 and P = 0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl 20 μg or meperidine 0.2 mg/kg to 0.5% bupivacaine intrathecally significantly decreased the incidence of shivering in lower limb orthopedic surgeries. There was no significant difference between two drugs with this respect.
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Evaluation of Magnesium as an adjuvant in Ropivacaine-induced supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A prospective, double-blinded randomized controlled study
Kasturi Mukherjee, Anjan Das, Sandip Roy Basunia, Soumyadip Dutta, Parthajit Mandal, Anindya Mukherjee
October-December 2014, 3(4):123-129
Objective: Different additives have been used to prolong brachial plexus block. We evaluated the effect of adding magnesium sulfate to ropivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade. The primary endpoints were the onset and duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia. Methods: One hundred patients (25-55 years) posted for elective forearm and hand surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were divided into two equal groups (Groups RM and RN) in a randomized, double-blind fashion. In group RM (n = 50), 30 ml 0.5% ropivacaine plus 150 mg (in 1 ml 0.9% saline) magnesium sulfate and in group RN (n = 50), 30 ml 0.5% ropivacaine plus 1 ml normal saline were administered in supraclavicular block. Sensory and motor block onset times and block durations, time to first analgesic use, total analgesic need, postoperative visual analog scale (VAS), hemodynamic variables, and side effects were recorded for each patient. Findings: Though with similar demographic profile and block (sensory and motor) onset time, the sensory and motor block duration and time to first analgesic use were significantly longer and the total need for rescue analgesics was lower in group RM (P = 0.026) than group RN. Postoperative VAS values at 24 h were significantly lower in group RM (P = 0.045). Intraoperative hemodynamics was comparable among two groups and no appreciable side effect was noted throughout the study period. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that adding magnesium sulfate to supraclavicular brachial plexus block may increase the sensory and motor block duration and time to first analgesic use, and decrease total analgesic needs, with no side effects.
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Adverse reactions of Methylphenidate in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Report from a referral center
Zahra Khajehpiri, Javad Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Toktam Faghihi, Iman Karimzadeh, Hossein Khalili, Mostafa Mohammadi
October-December 2014, 3(4):130-136
Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine various aspects of methylphenidate adverse reactions in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Iran. Methods: During the 6 months period, all children under methylphenidate treatment alone or along with other agents attending a university-affiliated psychology clinic were screened regarding all subjective and objective adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of methylphenidate. Causality and seriousness of detected ADRs were assessed by relevant World Health Organization definitions. The Schumock and Thornton questionnaire was used to determine preventability of ADRs. Findings: Seventy-one patients including 25 girls and 46 boys with ADHD under methylphenidate treatment were enrolled within the study period. All (100%) ADHD children under methylphenidate treatment developed at least one ADR. Anorexia (74.3%), irritability (57.1%), and insomnia (47.2%) were the most frequent methylphenidate-related adverse reactions. Except for one, all other detected ADRs were determined to be mild. In addition, no ADR was considered to be preventable and serious. Conclusion: Our data suggested that although methylphenidate related adverse reactions were common in children with ADHD, but they were mainly mild and nonserious.
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Counterfeit medicines sale on online pharmacies in India
Anup Nagaraj, Swasti Tambi, G Shravani, Gautam Biswas, Himanshu Kumawat, Gaurav Mathur
October-December 2014, 3(4):145-146
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A two-year utilization of the pharmacist-operated drug information center in Iran
Taher Entezari-Maleki, Mohammad Taraz, Mohammad Reza Javadi, Mir Hamed Hajimiri, Kaveh Eslami, Iman Karimzadeh, Maysam Esmaeili, Kheirollah Gholami
October-December 2014, 3(4):117-122
Objective: To assess and describe the call services delivered by drug and poison information call center (DPIC) of 13-Aban pharmacy, which is closely operated by the Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: All calls services including counseled and follow-up calls provided by 13-Aban DPIC to health care professionals and public were collected, documented, and evaluated in a 2 years period from July 2010 to June 2012 using the designed software. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 16.0. Findings: Totally 110,310 calls services delivered during a 2 years period. Among healthcare professionals, pharmacists, general physicians, and nurses requested more call services respectively (P = 0.001). DPIC could detect 585 potential cases of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and 420 cases of major drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Conclusion: This study by analyzing and reporting the two-years activities of one of the major DPICs in Iran, showed that DPICs can offer drug consultation for healthcare professional and public as well as detect and prevent ADRs and DDIs, and therefore can promote patients' health regarding drug therapy.
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Possible unaware intoxication by anticoagulant rodenticide
Simin Dashti-Khavidaki, Saba Ghaffari, Mohsen Nassiri-Toossi, Mohsen Amini, Maryam Edalatifard
October-December 2014, 3(4):142-144
Superwarfarin toxicity may be a serious problem. It needs high clinical suspicious in patients with bleeding diathesis without hematologic or liver diseases even in patients with apparent negative history of warfarin or other anticoagulant accessibility. Here we reported a patient with a negative history of any medical diseases or drug administration who was referred with generalized ecchymosis. Increased international normalized ratio and decreased vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors were detected in this patient. His hematologic and liver evaluations were normal. Clinical pharmacist emphasis in taking history revealed using anticoagulant rodenticide all over the farm the patient lived in that might result in unaware intoxication in this patient who suffered dementia.
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Evaluation of medicine prescription pattern
Sim Sai Tin, Viroj Wiwanitkit
October-December 2014, 3(4):147-147
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