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VIEWPOINT
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 102-105

Assessment methods and competency mapping in pharmacy education: Understanding of components and quality parameters


Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE

Date of Submission07-Jan-2021
Date of Acceptance20-Mar-2021
Date of Web Publication03-Aug-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Syed Wasif Gillani
Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Gulf Medical University, Ajman
UAE
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_21_29

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  Abstract 


Centre of advanced pharmaceutical education have developed 15 subsets of competencies required to be competent pharmacist and able to provide optimum care. These competencies were further categorized; Level 1 intermediate, Level 2 efficient, and Level 3 professional. These competencies are cross-mapped to achieve desirable outcomes. Where personal and professional development skills incorporate knowledge, for being a holistic pharmacist. In healthcare education curriculums, active learning tools such as simulation-based patient cases and other innovative learning activities are used to teach clinical skills, patient assessments, and pharmacotherapy concepts. The advance team-based learning technique for the development of stepwise understanding of disease management (simple-complex cases) and students can communicate and collaborate for the critical thinking and decision-making process. Many studies showed the positive impact of the peer teaching on the students; enhanced their academic performance, increase the cognitive congruence, and allows the students to share their own learning struggles to come up with solutions to overcome these challenges. Pharmacy is a healthcare professional required intensive training and professional skills to provide optimum care to patients. The emerging clinical role of pharmacy focused on the patient-centered model, comprehensive assessment, and teaching methods are required to fulfill the professional competencies.

Keywords: Center of advanced pharmaceutical education, clinical pharmacy, curriculum development, education, pharmacy


How to cite this article:
Gillani SW, Sam KG, Gebreigziabher FB, Al-Salloum J, Assadi RA, Gulam SM. Assessment methods and competency mapping in pharmacy education: Understanding of components and quality parameters. J Res Pharm Pract 2021;10:102-5

How to cite this URL:
Gillani SW, Sam KG, Gebreigziabher FB, Al-Salloum J, Assadi RA, Gulam SM. Assessment methods and competency mapping in pharmacy education: Understanding of components and quality parameters. J Res Pharm Pract [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Nov 28];10:102-5. Available from: https://www.jrpp.net/text.asp?2021/10/2/102/322965




  Introduction Top


In 1992, the Center of advanced pharmaceutical education (CAPE) was originated by the American Association of Clinical Pharmacy (AACP) to evolve pharmacy education. AACP released many versions after it, current being 2013 CAPE educational outcomes.[1] To become a professional competent pharmacist; one must have these 15 CAPE competencies. Each competency can be built by the integration of knowledge, skills, and attitude. CAPE 2013 document defines each educational outcome in detail under specific domains and further illustrates learning objectives to it.[2] [Figure 1] demonstrates stages of development to become a competent pharmacist, from Level 1 being intermediate through Level 2 being efficient to finally being Level 3 which is professional.
Figure 1: Level of Competency mapping to achieve optimum outcomes. Level 1: intermediate, Level 2: Efficient, Level 3: Professional. IPC: Interprofessional collaborator, CSI: Cultural sensitivity includer

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Learner is the core competency, which maps to provider (Population care), promoter (Health promoter), manager (Meds Manager – Medication Use Management), and caregiver (Patient-centered care). The competency as explained in the CAPE is to develop, integrate and apply foundational knowledge to perform duties of a pharmacist.[1] Foundational knowledge domain has become the core of competency without which students won't be able to progress.[3] It has been well integrated into curriculum and linked with pharmacy practice.[4],[5] To describe the mapping in [Figure 1], For example, let us look into the professionalism competency; it has been back mapped to problem solver, health educator, interprofessional collaborator (IPC), culture sensitivity includer, and self-awareness. Now further each of this back mapped competency of Level 2 is back mapped to Level 1 competencies example problem solver is mapped to patient-centered care and health promoter.

These competencies are cross-mapped in this order to achieve desirable outcomes. One of the literature-based proof for this mapping is Ramia et al., where personal and professional development skills (PPD) incorporate knowledge, for being a holistic pharmacist. PPD skills include professionalism, innovator, leader, and self-awareness subdomains.[6] According to the Royal pharmaceutical society article titled “Leadership Competency Framework for Pharmacy Professionals,” highlights five domains which are “Demonstrating Personal Qualities, Working with Others, Managing Services, Improving Services, Setting Direction.” Each of these domains contains elucidated four subdomains.[7] As per [Figure 1], leadership has been mapped to (Level 2) self-awareness, IPC, and patient advocate, which has been clearly demonstrated by the former study. In addition, each of these Level 2 competencies mapped to Level 1 have also been supported in the literature.


  Idea/Hypothesis Top


Assessment methods and proficiency in educational Outcome

Different types of assessment methods will help in the acquisition of certain competencies. However, the teaching method mapping to acquire competency is quite a challenge. There are several key factors play a vital role in the implementation, sustainability, and efficacious outcomes, such as reliability, validity, time needed to apply, and impact on study learning capability.

[Table 1] provided list of other methods and relevant application in the education system.
Table 1: Provided list of other methods and relevant application in the education system

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Current evidence

Teaching methods and competency mapping

The 1-min questions type of exam can evaluate the prior knowledge and synthesis and analysis. The ability to synthesis and critical thinking skills can be best evaluated using the article application assessment technique.[5],[6] Roleplays are type of experiential learning simulation in which learners take on different roles, assume a profile of a character or personality, and interact and participate in diverse and complex learning setting [Supplementary Table 1]. It improves creative thinking and performance skills and has a higher validity and reliability outcomes.[2] The time needed to develop this type of tool is moderate. There is a long impact on the students learning ability.[7]



Developing e-learning is more expensive than preparing classroom material and training the trainers especially if multimedia or highly interactive methods are used. This learning strategy provides a high level of understanding and problem-solving abilities. The validity is very high with this strategy; however, it is associated with poor reliability. The time needed is comparatively low and has a moderate impact on the learning skills. It has a Level 3 of quality learning pyramid.[2],[3],[4],[5]

Team/group-based learning and assessment

In healthcare education curriculums, active learning tools such as simulation-based patient cases and other innovative learning activities are used to teach clinical skills, patient assessments, and pharmacotherapy concepts. These learning modems have been shown to enhance students' problem-solving abilities, communication skills, team-based learning skills, and leadership aptitudes.[6],[7] A simulation-based exercise implemented for all second-year pharmacy students at Wayne State University in 2006 reported student satisfaction in the enhancement of their teamwork and problem-solving skills inpatient care was more effective with the active learning method using simulation and team-based discussion as compared to the traditional model of classroom teaching.[7]

Advance group-based learning activity

Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) and objective structured practical examinations (OSPEs) are ways of assessing various clinical knowledge and skillsets through active learning strategies. They are widely used as problem-based exercises that enhance students' critical thinking abilities through the integration of knowledge, communication skills, and reflective assessments which impact achievement of core competencies. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's Standards and Guidelines suggest the implementation of realistic-type active learning assessment tools such as OSCE and OSPE in pharmacy curricula to evaluate critical thinking skills in clinical scenarios.

Student self-awareness evaluation

Multiple definitions of self-awareness have been proposed in different literatures depends on the population involved. In the educational literature, self-awareness is considered as the knowledge and understanding of personal attitude, behaviors, emotions, and needs [Supplementary Table 2].[2],[5],[7] This tendency of the individual to pay attention to the attitude and skill can be measured using direct methods such as small group learning and indirect methods such as student's self-assessment on patient history skill, for which these approaches help in increasing the student's consideration toward the differences in their performance assessment compared to their faculty assessment.[2] As seen in [Supplementary Figure 1] and [Supplementary Figure 2], one of the methods of student's evaluation on self-awareness can be performed using journal club article appraisal which requires medium efforts from the student side. This method proves to have a good impact on the student's ability to criticize literature and increase the confidence toward making clinical decisions through creating an awareness on the learning and information process.[4],[6],[7] Other method which requires higher level of effort is students peer-reviewing for which they will exchange their work in pairs and ask for each other's evaluation of that work. Peer teaching is being utilized in medical schools as a new teaching tool to assess students' performance and learning [Supplementary Figure 3].









Recommendation

Pharmacy is a healthcare professional required intensive training and professional skills to provide optimum care to patients. The emerging clinical role of pharmacy focused on the patient-centered model, comprehensive assessment, and teaching methods are required to fulfill the professional competencies. Application of single assessment method (such as multiple-choice questions or short-essay questions) will have its limitation and impact on overall program learning outcomes. Pharmacy professional bodies should have to give emphasis on implementation and monitoring of multi-method assessment techniques.


  Authors' Contribution Top


All the authors have contributed equally to the preparation of this manuscript.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
CAPE Educational Outcomes | AACP; 2019. Available from: https://www.aacp.org/resource/cape-educational-outcome. [Last accessed on 2020 Dec 14].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Medina MS, Plaza CM, Stowe CD, Robinson ET, DeLander G, Beck DE, et al. Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education 2013 educational outcomes. Am J Pharm Educ 2013;77:162.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Goldman E, Schroth WS. Perspective: Deconstructing integration: A framework for the rational application of integration as a guiding curricular strategy. Acad Med 2012;87:729-34.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Ramia E, Salameh P, Btaiche I, Saad A. Mapping and assessment of personal and professional development skills in a pharmacy curriculum. BMC Med Educ 2016;16:1-13.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Vyas D, Wombwell E, Russell E, Caligiuri F. High-fidelity patient simulation series to supplement introductory pharmacy practice experiences. Am J Pharm Educ 2010;74:169.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Seybert A, kobulinski L. Human patient simulation in a pharmacotherapy course. Am J Pharm Educ 2008;72:37.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Fernandez R, Parker D. Using a human patient simulation mannequin to teach interdisciplinary team skills to pharmacy students. Am J Pharm Educ 2007;71:51.  Back to cited text no. 7
    


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