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   2015| January-March  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 27, 2015

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Early administration of surfactant via a thin intratracheal catheter in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: Feasibility and outcome
Majid Mohammadizadeh, Azam Ghehsareh Ardestani, Ali Reza Sadeghnia
January-March 2015, 4(1):31-36
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.150053  PMID:25710048
Objective: Currently, the method of early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and selective administration of surfactant via an endotracheal tube is widely used in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. To prevent complications related to endotracheal intubation and even a brief period of mechanical ventilation, in this study, we compared the effectiveness of surfactant administration via a thin intratracheal catheter versus the current method using an endotracheal tube. Methods: Thirty eight preterm infants ≤34 weeks' gestation with birth weight of 1000-1800 g who were putted on nCPAP for RDS within the first hour of life, were randomly assigned to receive surfactant either via endotracheal tube (ET group) or via thin intratracheal catheter (CATH group). The primary outcomes were the need for mechanical ventilation and duration of oxygen therapy. Data were analyzed by independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Chi-square test, using SPSS v. 21. Findings: There was no significant difference between groups regarding to need for mechanical ventilation during the first 72 h of birth (3 [15.8%] in ET group vs. 2 [10.5%] in CATH group; P = 0.99). Duration of oxygen therapy in CATH group was significantly lower than ET group (243.7 ± 74.3 h vs. 476.8 ± 106.8 h, respectively; P = 0.018). The incidence of adverse events during all times of surfactant administration was not statistically significant between groups (P = 0.14), but the number of infants who experienced adverse events during surfactant administration was significantly lower in CATH group than ET group (6 [31.6%] vs. 12 [63.2%], respectively; P = 0.049). All other outcomes, including duration of treatment with CPAP and mechanical ventilation, times of surfactant administration and the need for more than one dose of the drug, the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage, mortality and combined outcome of chronic lung disease or mortality were statistically similar between the groups Conclusion: Surfactant administration via thin intratracheal catheter in preterm infants receiving nCPAP for treatment of RDS has similar efficacy, feasibility and safety to its administration via endotracheal tube.
  28 3,896 702
Knowledge, attitude and practice of B.Sc. Pharmacy students about antibiotics in Trinidad and Tobago
Akram Ahmad, Muhammad Umair Khan, Isha Patel, Sandeep Maharaj, Sureshwar Pandey, Sameer Dhingra
January-March 2015, 4(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.150057  PMID:25710049
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of B.Sc. Pharmacy students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving B.Sc. Pharmacy students. The questionnaire was divided into five components including Demographics data, knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude toward antibiotic use and resistance, self-antibiotic usage and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. Data were analyzed by employing Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests using SPSS version 20. Findings: The response rate was 83.07%. The results showed good knowledge of antibiotic use among students. The overall attitude of pharmacy students was poor. About 75% of participants rarely use antibiotics, whereas self-decision was the major reason of antibiotic use (40.7%) and main source of information was retail pharmacist (42.6%). Common cold and flu is a major problem for which antibiotics were mainly utilized by pharmacy students (35.2%). Conclusion: The study showed good knowledge of pharmacy students regarding antibiotic usage. However, students' attitude towards antibiotic use was poor. The study recommends future studies to be conducted with interventional design to improve knowledge and attitude of pharmacy students about antibiotic use and resistance.
  16 5,271 840
Emergence agitation prevention in paediatric ambulatory surgery: A comparison between intranasal Dexmedetomidine and Clonidine
Anindya Mukherjee, Anjan Das, Sandip Roy Basunia, Surajit Chattopadhyay, Ratul Kundu, Raghunath Bhattacharyya
January-March 2015, 4(1):24-30
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.150051  PMID:25710047
Objective: Emergence agitation (EA), a short-lived, self-limiting phenomenon, arises frequently after the use of inhalational agents and hampers the implementation of pediatric ambulatory surgery in spite of using so many drugs with variable efficacy. Methods: In this prospective, double-blinded, parallel group study (2008-2009), 80 children of both sex aged 3-7 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status grade I-II, undergoing sevoflurane-based general anesthesia for elective day care surgery were randomly assigned into groups C or D. Group C received 4 μg/kg intranasal clonidine, whereas group D received 1 μg/kg intranasal dexmedetomidine, 45 min before induction of anesthesia. In postanesthesia care unit (PACU), the incidence of EA was assessed with Aonos four-point scale and the severity of EA was assessed with pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale upon admission (T0), after 5 min (T5), 15 min (T15), and 25 min (T25). Extubation time, emergence time, duration of PACU stay, dose and incidence of fentanyl use for pain control were noted. Findings: Based on comparable demographic profiles, the incidence and severity of EA were significantly lower in group D as compared to group C at T0, T5, T15, and T25. But time of regular breathing, awakening, extubation, and emergence were significantly delayed in group D than C. The number and dose of fentanyl used in group C were significantly higher than group D. PACU and hospital stay were quite comparable between groups. Conclusion: Intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg was more effective than clonidine 4 μg/kg in decreasing the incidence and severity of EA, when administered 45 min before the induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane for pediatric day care surgery. Dexmedetomidine also significantly reduced fentanyl consumption in PACU.
  15 4,007 703
Resource allocation and purchasing arrangements to improve accessibility of medicines: Evidence from Iran
Peivand Bastani, Gholamhossein Mehralian, Rasoul Dinarvand
January-March 2015, 4(1):9-17
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.150045  PMID:25710045
Objective: The aim of this study was to review the current methods of pharmaceutical purchasing by Iranian insurance organizations within the World Bank conceptual framework model so as to provide applicable pharmaceutical resource allocation and purchasing (RAP) arrangements in Iran. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted through a qualitative document analysis (QDA), applying the four-step Scott method in document selection, and conducting 20 semi-structured interviews using a triangulation method. Furthermore, the data were analyzed applying five steps framework analysis using Atlas-ti software. Findings: The QDA showed that the purchasers face many structural, financing, payment, delivery and service procurement and purchasing challenges. Moreover, the findings of interviews are provided in three sections including demand-side, supply-side and price and incentive regime. Conclusion: Localizing RAP arrangements as a World Bank Framework in a developing country like Iran considers the following as the prerequisite for implementing strategic purchasing in pharmaceutical sector: The improvement of accessibility, subsidiary mechanisms, reimbursement of new drugs, rational use, uniform pharmacopeia, best supplier selection, reduction of induced demand and moral hazard, payment reform. It is obvious that for Iran, these customized aspects are more various and detailed than those proposed in a World Bank model for developing countries.
  6 3,225 417
Magnesium sulfate versus Lidocaine pretreatment for prevention of pain on etomidate injection: A randomized, double-blinded placebo controlled trial
Mohammadreza Safavi, Azim Honarmand, Ashraf Sadat Sahafi, Seyyed Mohammad Sahafi, Mohammadali Attari, Mahsa Payandeh, Alireza Iazdani, Nilofarsaddat Norian
January-March 2015, 4(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.150044  PMID:25710044
Objective: Etomidate is an imidazole derivative and formulated in 35% propylene glycol. When given without a rapid lidocaine injection, etomidate is associated with pain after injection. Magnesium (Mg) is a calcium channel blocker and influences the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ion channel. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of preemptive injection of magnesium sulfate and lidocaine on pain alleviation on etomidate intravenous injection. Methods: In a randomized, double-blinded trial study, 135 adult patients scheduled for elective outpatient or inpatient surgery were divided into three groups. Group M received 620 mg magnesium sulfate, Group L received 3 ml lidocaine 1% and Group S received normal saline, all in a volume of 5 mL followed by a maximal dose of 0.3 mg/kg of 1% etomidate. Pain was assessed on a four-point scale: 0 = no pain, 1 = mild pain, 2 = moderate pain and 3 = severe pain at the time of pretreatment and etomidate injection. Findings: About 60% of patients in the control group had pain during etomidate injection as compared to 22.2% and 40% in the lidocaine and magnesium sulfate groups, respectively. There was difference in induction pain score between three treatment groups, significantly (P = 0.01) and observed differences in pain scores between "normal saline and lidocaine group" (P < 0.001) and "normal saline and magnesium sulfate groups" were statistically meaningful (P = 0.044). Conclusion: Intravenous magnesium sulfate and lidocaine injection are comparably effective in reducing etomidate-induced pain.
  6 2,890 473
Drug pricing policies in one of the largest drug manufacturing nations in the world: Are affordability and access a cause for concern?
Akram Ahmad, Muhammad Umair Khan, Isha Patel
January-March 2015, 4(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.150043  PMID:25710043
  5 3,606 516
Risk factors and the outcome of therapy in patients with seizure after Carbamazepine poisoning: A two-year cross-sectional study
Ahmad Yaraghi, Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Marzieh Salehi, Gholamreza Massoumi, Lejla Zunic, Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee
January-March 2015, 4(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.150046  PMID:25710046
Objective: We aimed to investigate the frequency of seizure after acute carbamazepine poisoning and the important risk factors related to the outcomes of therapy. Methods: In this two-year cross-sectional study conducted in a University Hospital in Iran, 114 patients with acute carbamazepine poisoning were divided into two groups of with seizure (n = 8) and without seizure (n = 106) after intoxication. Demographic data, average amount of drug ingestion, time elapsed from ingestion to hospital admission, history of seizure before poisoning, mental status, visual disturbances and nystagmus, duration of hospitalization, the outcomes of therapy, arterial blood gas values and serum biochemical indices were compared between the two groups. Findings: Patients with seizure had an estimated (Mean ± SD) ingestion of 14,300 ± 570 mg carbamazepine, which was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than the seizure-free group (4600 ± 420 mg). The estimated average time between drug ingestion and hospital admission in patients with seizure and the seizure-free group were 515 ± 275 and 370 ± 46 minutes, respectively (P < 0.0001). In this study, 104 out of the total number of patients had recovered without any complication. Need for respiratory support, including airway support or intubation were the most recorded complication. One patient died after status epilepticus and aspiration pneumonia. Conclusion: The ingested amount of carbamazepine and the time elapsed from the ingestion of drug to hospital admission may influence the occurrence of seizure after acute carbamazepine poisoning; however, the outcome of supportive care in these patients seems to be positive.
  1 2,894 449
Complementary and alternative medicine: A buzz for medical and health care systems
Sudhanshu Sanadhya, Pankaj Aapaliya, Sorabh Jain, Garima Choudhary
January-March 2015, 4(1):42-43
DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.150059  PMID:25710050
  - 2,156 255